Is compliance with industry standards enough to establish due diligence? Alberta Court of Appeal set to consider this issue.
We recently wrote about the decision in R. v. Precision Drilling Canada Ltd., where the Appeal Judge set aside the trial verdicts and ordered a new trial in a workplace fatality case. The Crown sought leave to appeal that decision to the Alberta Court of Appeal.
In the leave to appeal decision, the Alberta Court of Appeal stated that workplace safety was of significant public importance to justify a further appeal. It granted leave to the Crown to advance its appeal on two questions that had not yet been settled by Alberta’s highest court. Those questions were:
- Did the Appeal Judge err in law by requiring the Crown, as part of the actus reus of the offence, to negate due diligence or prove negligence?
- Did the Appeal Judge err in law in her interpretation and application of the due diligence test?
On the first issue, the Crown argued that the Appeal Judge’s decision required the Crown to prove negligence, or negate due diligence in order to prove the elements of the offence under section 2 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, being the general duty on an employer to ensure the health and safety of its workers. The Court of Appeal noted that as the law currently stands, it was arguable that in order to prove a breach under section 2, the Crown need only prove the fact of employment, the worker’s engagement in the employer’s work, and the worker’s injury or death. It would then be up to the employer to prove due diligence. In this case, the Appeal Judge appeared to require the Crown to prove that the employer committed a wrongful act. As such, the Court of Appeal found that the Crown’s position on this point had merit.
On the second issue, the Crown argued that the Appeal Judge erred in strictly comparing the employer’s practices to generally accepted standard practices in the industry, rather than taking a broader view of what the employer reasonably should have done. The Crown’s position was that while industry standards may set a minimum level of care, they did not determine due diligence. The Court of Appeal agreed that the Appeal Judge’s decision arguably used a due diligence test that required the Crown to disprove compliance with industry standards and government regulation and did not apply the proper foreseeability test or broader due diligence test.
As such, the Alberta Court of Appeal agreed that the appeal could proceed on those two issues. It will be interesting to see how the Court of Appeal ultimately decides these questions and brings clarity to these two important issues. Stay tuned.
R. v. Precision Diversified Oilfield Services Corp., 2017 ABCA 47 (CanLII)